Ruslan I. Al-Shekhadat, Ksenia S. Lopushanskaya, Álvaro Segura, José María Gutiérrez, Juan J. Calvete and Davinia Pla. Vipera berus berus Venom from Russia: Venomics, Bioactivities and Preclinical Assessment of Microgen Antivenom // Toxins (Basel). — 2019. — № 11(2). — Pii: E90.
The common European adder, Vipera berus berus, is a medically relevant species, which is widely distributed in Russia and thus, is responsible for most snakebite accidents in Russia. We have investigated the toxic and enzymatic activities and have determined the proteomic composition of its venom. Phospholipases A2 (PLA₂, 25.3% of the venom proteome), serine proteinases (SVSP, 16.2%), metalloproteinases (SVMP, 17.2%), vasoactive peptides (bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), 9.5% and C-type natriuretic peptides (C-NAP, 7.8%), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP, 8%) and L-amino acid oxidase (LAO, 7.3%) represent the major toxin classes found in V. b. berus (Russia) venom. This study was also designed to assess the in vivo and in vitro preclinical efficacy of the Russian Microgen antivenom in neutralizing the main effects of V. b. berus venom. The results show that this antivenom is capable of neutralizing the lethal, hemorrhagic and PLA₂ activities. Third-generation antivenomics was applied to quantify the toxin-recognition landscape and the maximal binding capacity of the antivenom for each component of the venom. The antivenomics analysis revealed that 6.24% of the anti-V. b. berus F(ab’)2 molecules fraction are toxin-binding antibodies, 60% of which represent clinically relevant antivenom molecules.
Keywords: Vipera berus berus; antivenomics.; common European viper; snake antivenom; snake venom; venomics.
Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/11/2/90/htm